Infectious Bursal Disease in Poultry

Pashu Sandesh, 06 July 2020

Dr V. Rajendra Prasad

Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is seen in young domestic chickens worldwide and is caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). It is also known as Gumboro disease. The target organ of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the bursa of Fabricius at its maximum development, which is a specific source for B lymphocytes in avian species. 

The observed clinical signs during IBD infection include 

a) high mortality, 

b) unsteady gait, 

c) ruffled feathers, 

d) urate containing diarrhoea

e) sudden death. 

The post-mortem finding includes:

a) haemorrhages in the leg and breast muscles, 

 b) enlarged, oedematous and hyperaemic bursa with bloody or mucoid contents. 

RT-PCR/RFLP is a very useful and rapid method for characterisation and identification of existing and evolving strains of IBDV. Only supportive therapy, immune booster medicines with vaccination and maintaining bio securities may combat mortalities.

The enormous economic losses associated with the IBD disease is due to 

a) high mortality, 

b) decreased performance, 

c) immune suppression that leads to increase susceptibility to other diseases and decrease response to vaccination.

Immunosuppression is directly related to this loss of B-lymphocytes.

Immuno modulators :

Immunotech of ABTL should be administered at 250ml for 1000 birds for one week twice a day followed by 100 ml for another few weeks will considerably boost the immunity in birds. Supplement with Electrolytes, Vitamins and minerals in drinking water. 

Disinfection of contaminated farms has achieved some limited success in preventing disease spread.