Pashu Sandesh, 09 May 2020
Dr Rajendra Kumar G. Gujarathi
Friends, let us first understand the meaning of the wordbiosecurity. Biosecurity means biological integration, that is, planning measures to prevent large-scale damage. Biosecurity measures are taken to protect the environment and human health from harmful events.
Friends, it is equally important to take measures for biosecurity in the dairy business because it will reduce more expenditure on management practices & treatment of stock animals. So it takes time to take bio persity measures to prevent this. In general, the biosecurity of animals in the dairy industry is to protect them from the spread of bacteria, viruses, fungus etc. These diseases can be transmitted to animals through fodder, water and food, or by strangers, dogs, animals, birds, etc.
It has come to my notice that even today, biosecurity is not taken care of while conducting Dairy business.
Taking all aspects in consideration the following should be considered while implementing “biosecurity measures” in the dairy industry:
1. Exterior biosecurity of the byre.
Dairy business can be done primarily by the Stallfed method or by the Loose housing method. Both have some advantages and disadvantages.
i. Stallfed method:
The animals are tied up at a certain distance in the byre at a certain distance like the tail to tail and their excrement is collected in the middle drain on the surface of the byre n and disposed of properly. The animals are given fresh water and fodder on the spot. Their milk is also extracted by machine or by hand. In this method, the animals are fed fodder as per their choice, so it is doubtful whether they will get as much fodder and speciality water as they want and there is a possibility of mastitis and milk production may not be satisfactory.
ii. Loose housing method:
The free grazing byre method is relatively more useful. In this, free movement of cattle can be started in a space of about 100 x 100 meters. Water is provided on both sides of the byre so that the animals can get as much water as they want And it is found in which has led to an increase in milk production. They also excrete dung n urine and animals graze on it to produce excellent quality farmyard manure. Outbreaks appear to be exacerbated during this time. In this method, the animals are simply taken to the place at the time of milking and given proper feed.
Special attention should also be paid to the following points in the bio-safety measures of the gap structure.
• It is very important to keep the area around the byre clean and sterile so it is important to have adequate water storage in the byre. It is very important to have a protective wall on all four sides of the byre using cement or other materials so that the byre can be cleaned at least twice.
• It is very important to pay attention to the people visiting the byre, the treating doctors, the staff working on the farm, the equipment used in the barn, new animals etc.
• Sick animals in the barn need to be separated from other healthy animals and treated properly by a veterinarian.
2. Biosecurity for clean milk production
• The cowshed needs to be cleaned regularly every day and at least once a week or fortnight. It is very important to take care that the animal excrement can be disposed of properly. Used on your barn It is very important not to use the same equipment on tens of animals and to disinfect them when it is time to use them.
• Workers working in the barn should be alert about personal hygiene. For example, a person who is milking should first clean his hands with sterile soap and also clean the milk that is extracted.
• After diligent efforts for clean milk production, it will be equally important to take care of the bio-safety of the staff, equipment as well as the vehicles used in the process of storing the milk and transporting it to the milk distribution centre.
• At the end of the treatment, the dead animals should be disposed of in a scientific manner without leaving them in a separate open space outside the barn. The animals should be dug according to their weight and size and buried in it. When burying, first a layer of lime and then a layer of soil should be placed in it. Infection of the disease can be prevented.
3. Interior biosecurity of the byre
• It is very important to have a protective fence around the barn using appropriate cement fences or similar objects to protect against animals like rats, or snakes
• Equipment used for animal feed and fodder etc. should be kept in a separate room from the main animal shed.
• A special room should be arranged during the visit so that these people do not come into unnecessary contact with their animals.
• Workers working on the farm or the owner himself or the visiting person or the treating doctor should wear protective clothing whenever possible while walking in the barn
• New animals that come into the barn should be kept separate from other animals for at least 14 to 21 days. This is called classical OLARANTINE so that they can be observed and cared for.
• At the entrance to farm there should be made at least 3 feet wide and 6 feet long Footbath which contains disinfectants like lime etc.
• A sign in bold letters stating that the herd is abiding by the "Bio-safety measures" should be put up at the entrance so that the visitors can see it.
• The daily dung storage from the animal should be at least 25 feet away from the byre. It can be used as fertilizer for agriculture or to generate electricity by Gobargas. Ticks side effects are more prevalent if the manure storage is close to the goitre, so tick causes deadly diseases like Yellaria, Babesia etc.
• For this it is essential to spray the herbicide at least once a week in the cowshed and on the animals. It is currently given injections like ivermectin which is very wrong. This adversely affects the liver of animals. On the other hand, new drugs like metargium can kill 2 per cent of the animals if they are killed in special cracks in the herds. He should be kept for six hours. The mixture should then be sprayed at a rate of 1.5 litres per animal. It should also be sprayed in the barn at a rate of 30 ml per square foot.
• When implementing a biosecurity measure in a byre, keep in mind that everything new that comes into the barn can be a bacterial virus or fungus carrier and that fodder is more likely to be present in food and fodder, called mycotoxins. After such fodder is eaten by animals for a long time, fungus poisoning occurs and milk production decreases. For this purpose, at the time of purchase of their ingredients in the preparation of food, the proportion of humidity should be less than nine per cent so as to reduce the possibility of fungus formation in it.
• Biological preventive measures include the use of the fungus Metrolgium anisopillae. This fungus is available at Rahari Agricultural University and its quantity should be mixed with 5 ml of fungus powder in 1 litre of water and mixed with 5 ml of milk. Note that this mixture should not be sprayed on animals. Mix one litre of water on the surface of the barn, as well as the cracks in the barn, Keep in mind that the area was thirty per square meter or scale it should be sprayed on the animals.
• It is mixed with litres of water on the surface of the barn and in the cracks in the barn Note that the solution should be sprayed at the rate of 30 ml per square meter. This solution should not be sprayed on animals.
• What should be done daily in the barn should also be noted. In case of any disease in the past, it should be recorded in the daily diary so that future treatment can be saved.
• No disease has been diagnosed in the barn and if the animal dies, the animal should be necropsied by a graduate veterinarian and the cause of death should be ascertained.
• There are weak and low yielding animals in the herd and they should be separated from time to time and the appropriate decision should be taken regarding treatment n there feed.
• Biopersity regulations should be communicated to those who are new to the barn or to those who may be in the household.
• If absolutely necessary, a separate clean cloth to be worn in the barn should be given to the head only by wearing a hat, gumboots and a nose mask.
• The same thing is important for a veterinarian to do when an animal is sick.
• The feeding and watering times of the animals should be strictly observed. Because a lot of the economics of the dairy business depends on it ...
• It is very important to vaccinate periodically infectious diseases. It is very important to vaccinate at least once a year and twice a year for Foot n mouth disease.
• Blood test of all the animals once in a year is essential for TB and Brucellosis n even for Theileriasis, Babesiosis etc The byre is " Free of TB and brucellosis" should be written on notice board of the farm. It will be a source of public of city awareness and a source of pride for you and your farm.
• In order to know the economics of dairy business, it is important to take note of the activities that take place throughout the day, so it is essential that the day-to-day activities of the farm are carried out by the farm manager assigned to the farm.
• If there is any change in their behaviour while walking in animal on the farm, it should be immediately examined and treated by an expert veterinarian and the animal should be kept separate from other animals.
Dear breeders, I have tried to write this article by working on my field experience as well as by compiling reading and information. I think reading this article will definitely help you in doing your Dairy business in a scientific way.
Dr Rajendra Kumar G. Gujarathi
B. V.Sc. & A.H. (BOM)
Vol. Retd. Livestock Development Officer.
Department Of Animal Husbandry Maharashtra
Donnacha, Dist. Dhule